Data interoperability: an essential for the
e-mobility ecosystem

A 2024 collaboration between:

#EVision

EV sales are booming globally but the road to mass adoption in Europe is getting bumpy. While tensions are simmering between the EU, US and China over the race for EV production, a new challenge is emerging in the EU’s e-mobility ecosystem: data interoperability

EVs run on power but their hidden fuel is data! This data is kept in silos today, hampering the relevant players of the ecosystem– charging operators, distribution system operators (DSOs), auto makers – to optimise their services and improve the experience for EV users. Breaking this data lock is essential for e-mobility to accelerate and reach Europe’s mass market consumers. 

Context

Six essentials for e-mobility

In 2023, our EVision report brought you Six essentials for mainstream EV adoption. In the mobility sector, the vehicle itself is only part of the story. It must be supported by adequate charging infrastructure, a smart grid technology allowing the two-way flow of energy and by digital services that make EV ownership simple, flexible and likeable.

Digitalisation is a critical essential enabling the integration of different ecosystems, such as the automotive sector and the power industry, through secure and open data access and transfer.

This is why the 2024 EVision report focuses on data and its interoperability to accelerate e-mobility.

The electric car is only the tip of the iceberg of a highly interconnected space made of several players: from original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and automakers that develop vehicles’ hardware and software, to the grid operators that depend on the aggregate data of network users to provide grid connections, to charge point operators that build charging stations to link to the electricity network, to e-mobility service providers that connect EV drivers to a charge station, ensure charging services and manage transactions through different payment systems.

But first let’s take a look at Europe’s e-mobility state of play.

01

Electric vehicle (EV)stock take reveals positive growth

EV adoption in Europe (% sales 2010 to 2050)

Source: EY Knowledge analysis of the European Automobile Manufacturers' Association (ACEA) data and the EY Mobility Lens Forecaster 2023.

EV stocktake reveals positive growth

0%
Global EV sales

> 14.1 million new EVs took to the road in 2023, taking total stock above 40 million.

0%
Europe EV sales

> 1 from 5 cars sold in Europe are now electric.

EY estimates that there will be more than 75 million EVs on Europe’s roads by 2030. The analysis is supported by the improving choice and economics of EVs versus traditional petrol and diesel alternatives.  

But, to encourage greater EV uptake, automakers must do more to increase the range and availability of affordable and mid-sized car models. Meanwhile, battery costs are falling again, following unprecedented price increases in 2022, which reinforces growing EV numbers. 

02

Outpacing predictions, with sales set to outstrip all other vehicles by 2030

New EV sales in Europe (Jan–Nov 2023)

Source: EY Knowledge analysis of the European Automobile Manufacturers' Association (ACEA) data and the EY Mobility Lens Forecaster 2023.

In Europe (the EU 27 plus the UK, Norway and Switzerland), battery EVs (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid EVs (PHEVs) accounted for more than one in five new cars sold in 2023. Three years ago the same car models accounted for only one in 25 new cars sold! Between January and November, sales grew by 25% to account for 23% of all vehicle sales, up from just over 21% in 2022. 

“Acceleration comes once EV adoption reaches 10%. So, by 2030, we confidently expect EV sales to outstrip sales of all other vehicles” – says EY.  

Breaking it down by country, this maxim holds true. EVs have accelerated massively in places like the Nordic and western European countries where over 20% of new cars are electric. Getting other European countries to this threshold will add more critical mass to the continental transportation rEVolution. 

03

Sales of zero-emissions heavy-duty vehicles (eHDVs) are up in Europe.

Heavy-duty vehicles are also picking up. Over 7% of van sales are now electric, while electric trucks represent 1.5% of the market, a jump from just 0.4% in 2022. Electric bus sales increased to 14% of the market, with strong growth in France, Spain and Germany.  

The EU is now aiming to cut tailpipe emissions from HDVs by 45% by 2030, 65% by 2035, and 90% by 2040 according to the CO2 emissions standards for HDVs. Accelerated roll-out of eHDVs will be essential for reaching these targets.  

04

Mobility infrastructure is keeping up.

The widespread adoption of EVs is accompanied by the simultaneous expansion in the public network of fast chargers.

In Europe, the number of non-residential charging points increased from around 530,000 in 2022 to 744,000 in 2023.

Rollout of fast and ultrafast direct current (DC) chargers also gathered pace, increasing 77% to more than 100,000, with the build-out of alternating current (AC) chargers jumping 36%.

Advances in battery technology mean fast chargers now have a power rating 10 times higher than five years ago. As a result, charging times – one of the biggest concerns for customers together with range anxiety and high upfront costs – are significantly reduced.

EU Member States are ahead of the EU fleet targets for total power output

Member States are ahead of the AFIR fleet-based targets for total power output

Total power output per AFIR fleet-based target for Member States

Source: EY/Eurelectric report on Six essentials for mainstream EV adoption.

In terms of targets, Member States are outstripping what has been agreed in the Alternative Fuels and Infrastructure Regulation (AFIR), delivering more power-output for electric charging than targeted. However, disparities in the rollout of charging infrastructure remain in Europe.

Across the continent, there is a wide geographical gap in the development of charging stations with around 78% sites located in just seven countries in 2023: Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK. Infrastructure development also differs between urban to rural areas, with the latter being more difficult to connect.

05

Data interoperability can optimise critical e-mobility activity and improve the customer experience.

Every actor in the EV ecosystem generates data. It’s the commodity that each mobility player wants, but another player owns. Much of this data – including vehicle characteristics, battery status, grid capacity, and charging stations performance – is not shared today due to concerns over proprietary data, loss of competitive advantage for automakers, cyber and privacy risks.  

In other words, EV data is treated as a scarce resource that ecosystem players are producing and commodifying. This commodification is impairing the entire ecosystem efficiency.

Where data is withheld, or formats are inconsistent, there may be knock-on ramifications for efficiency across the network, ultimately impacting the overall customer experience and value. If you own an EV and plug it in at a charging station, without the automaker allowing access to the vehicle data, tailored services to the type of vehicle or the age and status of the battery are beyond reach. 

For system operators better data sharing would provide real time insights into grid performance and empower them to engage in proactive grid management and better EV integration. Similarly, charge point operators would be able to receive more granular data from grid operators on grid connection capacities to make better decisions on where to site and operate charging infrastructure. They would then interconnect with eMSPs to provide the best charging experience for users.

How do we solve the challenge of data interoperability in the e-mobility ecosystem?

We know that this ecosystem will be fully digital – even more digitalised than other sectors since EVs are computers on wheels. If we are to maintain momentum, and keep EV drivers enthusiasm high, every interaction must be configured for a seamless customer experience. From purchase or lease, through EV usage and management, to end-of-life decommissioning, we must deliver a hassle-free and green driver experience.  

Data should become interoperable across the value chain through standardised protocols, charging roaming networks, grid congestion heat maps and common platforms to break down data silos.

Exploring data interoperability across three principle e-mobility activities

Data interoperability can resolve  many challenges within the e-mobility ecosystem and improve the customer experience.

1

Charging station optimisation

Strategically located charging stations, which are accessible, renewably powered (where possible), reliable and scalable

2

Intelligent grid integration

Seamless integration of EV charging with the energy grid for flexibility purposes

3

Optimised charging experience

User-friendly, consistent and seamless access to charging infrastructure across different charging networks

Europe has a unique position to standardise data interoperability across the entire continent, proving to be a competitive advantage for European businesses – from car companies to utilities. Capitalising on this competitive advantage, we can drive the rEVolution forward, decarbonising road transportation, supporting the sustainability of our cities and safeguarding our automotive industry in the process. Failing to do so will leave us behind with our sustainability objectives and ultimately lead to mounting costs for both businesses and customers.

Solving the EV data challenge, on the contrary, will give Europe a revived impetus versus the rest of the world. If we succeed, the future digital e-mobility ecosystem will be fully connected, integrated and interoperable. And, across an intricate network, EVs, EV manufacturers, smart-charging stations, service providers’ charging systems, energy providers and intelligent grid systems will communicate seamlessly and exchange information in real time. They will provide freedom of choice to consumers, better services and cost savings, as well as competition among providers, innovation and scalability.

Eurelectric policy recommendations

How to enable the evolving mobility ecosystem?

Source: EY

1

Roaming and payments

Ease Cross-Border roaming and payment: Implement regulations to ensure all publicly available charging stations comply with the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Regulation (AFIR), providing access to all EV drivers to ensure a homogeneous charging experience.

Accelerate ISO 15118-20 Compliance: Encourage the acceleration of compliance with ISO 15118-20 standards to enable plug-and-charge capabilities, facilitating seamless charging experiences and enabling EVs to contribute to grid stability through smart and bidirectional charging (V2X) solutions, including the vehicle-to-grid technology.

2

Standards and communication protocols

In-Vehicle Data Act: European Commission should propose new legislation.

Publish In-Vehicle Data Catalogue:Mandate automakers to publish a catalogue of existing in-vehicle data points in a standardised format, promoting fair competition and innovation across the EV ecosystem.

Access to In-Vehicle Data: Ensure that customers and third-party service operators have full access to a predetermined set of in-vehicle data, including battery state of charge, allowing charging infrastructure and grid networks to exchange information about demand and flexibility potential, thus integrating EVs as true grid assets.

3

Connecting charging infrastructure to the grid

Smart Charging Mandate: Require that all new and renovated publicly accessible charging points comply with smart charging capabilities, as per AFIR (Article 5.8), to optimise charging schedules, ease grid integration and reduce grid congestion.

Grid Capacity Heat Maps: Mandate the creation of grid capacity heat maps at the distribution level, providing transparent information to private and public stakeholders and facilitating informed planning decisions for better charging infrastructure development both in urban and rural areas.

4

Smart grid integration

Real-Time Data Transfer Prioritisation: Prioritise investment in real-time data transfer infrastructure between Charge Point Operators (CPOs) and Distribution System Operators (DSOs) to optimise grid management and support EV charging services.

Clean and Renewable Energy Integration: Encourage the integration of smart and bidirectional charging infrastructure with decarbonised electricity sources to promote sustainable charging practices and enhance access to clean energy for EV owners.

5

Data sharing, privacy, and cybersecurity

Standardised Data Collection: Introduce standardised data collection practices to remove inconsistencies and facilitate data interoperability across the EV ecosystems.

Open Access to EV Data: Agree on principles of open and non-discriminatory access to data, ensuring a fair and reasonable compensation to the data owner for data sharing while adhering to privacy regulations such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and establishing standardised agreements for customer consent and data transfer between stakeholders.

Business Hub

Connecting and accelerating e-mobility across Europe

#EVision #ElectricDecade

Eurelectric stands ready to play its part in supporting with its EVision business hub. Any successful European transition to decarbonised electrified transportation calls for cross-sectorial collaboration. Emerging players must identify shared operational challenges and exchange best practices to reach mutually beneficial solutions.

To this end, Eurelectric has launched the EVision business hub, which convenes the various market players in and beyond the power sector. The main goal: facilitating the uptake and expansion of e-mobility across Europe.

Contact us to know more about our activities!

Explore more insight on the future EV digital ecosystem with EY